This document presents a translation of “Records of a Syrian Household”, with a Foreword by Mustafa Öztürk and which appeared in Turkish in 2004. “Records of a Syrian Household” investigates an Ottoman census of Damascus carried out in the year 1086 Hijri (1675 - 1676), which is recorded in the Ottoman archives and which provides a snapshot of the Syrian capital at a time when it had 10,000 households with an estimated total population of 50,000 individuals. Öztürk presents an overview of the registry books used for this household census, and looks closely at the survey features and the methodology used by the Ottoman state of the time. The historical significance of this document lies in the way it reflects an accurate picture of the demographic reality of the Ottoman realm, and in particular in its Arab regions. The text explored here also explores the economic significance of this census, which allowed for a more efficient and reliable tax collection. Öztürk also illustrates this document of economic and social history with a number of charts and tables.